Wednesday, September 29, 2004

Bal, Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative (Callen)

Callen Shutters
September 20 and 27, 2004
Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative by Mieke Bal
University of Toronto Press, 1985
164 pages

1. This project is focused upon introducing readers to the field of narrative theory. Bal breaks down storytelling into three categories, which also correspond to three chapters in the text. These categories include Fabula: Elements, Story: Aspects, and Text: Words. The project of chapter one is to introduce the idea of the ‘fabula’ and to break down the story by the functionality of its parts. That is, Bal describes in detail how the narrative is broken down into events, actors, actants, time, and location. Chapter two focuses upon aspects of the story, including ordering, direction, possibilities, distance, and focalization. Also, Bal discusses the use of narrative techniques such as span, anticipation, achrony, rhythm, pause, frequency, predictability, and suspense. Within these subtopics, Bal gives examples of texts that employ each of these methods of embellishing a narrative. The final argument of this chapter is that “focalization is,…the most important, most penetrating, and most subtle means of manipulation” (116). Focalization accounts for the lens with which readers approach a narrative and considers the role of the reader in the relation of a narrative. Chapter three focuses upon an in-depth study of the many issues surrounding the distinct identities of the narrator and the author. Bal concludes her study by describing the relationships between primary and embedded texts.

2. Within narrative theory and the models of narrativity, there is a homology. That is, “a correspondence between the (linguistic) structure of the sentence and that of the whole text composed of various sentences” (11). In addition to the linguistic homology, Bal feels that there is also a structural homology “between the fabulas of narratives and real fabulas,” or the fabulas of life (12). By breaking down a story into categories of events, actors, actants, time, and location, these homologies emerge.


3. Chapter One Key Terms: Narratology: “the theory of narrative texts” (3)
Narrative Text: “a text in which an agent relates a narrative” (5)
Story: “a fabula that is presented in a certain manner” (5)
Fabula: “a series of logically and chronologically related events that are
caused or experienced by actors” (5)
Event: “the transition from one state to another state” (5)
Actors: “agents that perform actions (not necessarily human)” (5)
Act: “to cause of to experience an event” (5)


Chapter two key terms:
Aspects: a term that indicates that the story “does not consist of material
different from that of fabula, but that this material is looked at from a certain,
specific angle” (49)
Perspective: “the technical aspect, the placing of the point of view in a
specific agent” (50)
Point of View: “view from which the image of the fabula and the (fictitious)
world where it takes place are constructed” (50)
Chronological Order: “a theoretical construction, which we can make on the
basis of laws of everyday logic which govern common reality” (51)
Chronological Deviations or Anachronies: “differences between the
arrangement in the story and the chronology of the fabula” (53)
Media Res: “a conventional construction of a novel, in which the novel
begins by immersing the reader in the middle of the fabula” (53)
External Analepsis: a case in which “a retroversion (flashback) takes place
completely outside the time span of the primary fabula” (59)
Internal Analepsis: a retroversion which “takes place within the time span of
the primary fabula” (59)
Span: “the stretch of time covered by an anachrony,” can be complete or
incomplete (disconnected jumps in chronological fabula time) (61)
Achrony: “a deviation in time which cannot be analyzed any further,” an
instance where the “linearity of the fabula and the linearity of its presentation
to the reader no longer have any correspondence at all” (66)
*examples include a back reference, anticipation-within-retroversion,
retroversion-within-anticipation
Ellipsis: “an omission in the story of a section of the fabula” (71)
Iterative Presentation: “a whole series of identical events presented at once,”
the reverse of repetition (78)
Semantic Axis: “pairs of contrary meanings” (86)
*examples include large-small, rich-poor, man-woman, kind-unkind
Place: related to the physical, mathematically measurable shape of spatial
dimensions within the fictional sphere of the fabula” (93)
Space: “places seen in relationship to their perception,” places which are
linked to certain points of perception (93)
Focalization: the relationship between the vision and what is ‘seen,’
perceived” (100)
Focalizor: the subject of the focalization, the point from which the elements
are viewed (104)

Chapter Three Key Terms:
Narrator: “the linguistic subject, a function and not a person which expresses
itself in the language that contributes to the text” (119)
Implied Author: “the result of the investigation of the meaning of a text, and
not the source of that meaning,” “term used in order to discuss and analyse the
ideological moral stances of a narrative text without having to refer directly to
a biographical author” (119-120)

4. Structuralist. Bal describes elements “in their relation to each other, and not as isolated units” (45). The “assumption is that fixed relations between classes of phenomena form the basis of the narrative system of the fabula” (46). The approach relies upon a system of classification. Other theorists expanded upon and referenced include Barthes, Hendricks, Chatman, Bremond, Griemas, Souriau, Prince, Lotman, Genette, Hamon, Booth, Uspenski, Lodge, Friedman, Rimmon-Kenan, and Lanswer.

5. Since the text is a basic introduction to the elements of narrative, the text did not trigger substantial thought or analysis beyond the elements listed. Most importantly, it pushed me to think of examples of or exceptions to the structure of the elements listed in the text. Finally, the key terms used in the discourse of narratology will prove vital to the comprehension of other theoretical texts on this topic.


6. The book offers a broad view of the history of narrative theory while also breaking down the pieces of a narrative into easily navigable elements. Within these elements, one can apply the investigation to any narrative. In this respect, Bal’s analysis seems timeless.

7. This text has provided me with a sound base of knowledge of narrative theory and the many elements that go into storytelling.

39 Comments:

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Name: Fredrich Nietzsche
Translator: Walter Kaufmann
Date: 1966
Title: Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future
Pub. Date: 1989
Length: 256

1) Synopsis: A historical critique which refutes that there is no single truth or authority of traditional power; there are only interpretations. There is no definitive version of truth in philosophy, religion, language, or science. Thus the Socratic quest for some way was/is futile.

2) Thesis: The "will to power" is the most basic instinct that an individual maintains. It is that will which incites one’s desire for self-preservation and allows superiority over weaker individuals. Ultimately the claim for "truth" is masked by the history of the life of the person proposing that particular "truth". It is the will to abound in self definition and seek out truth within the moment, one which is always evolving.

3) Key Words
1. Friedrich Nietzsche, Will to Power, Existentialism, Perspectivism, Zarathustra, Self-realization, Sublimation, Nihilism

4) School/Discourse
1. Existentialism - the desire to make rational decisions despite the existence of an irrational universe. The human desires for logic and immortality are futile, therefore humans are forced to individually define meaning.
2. Response to:
(a) Socrates – Search for truth; all men are equal in their search for living a moral and humble life.
(b) Kant - Empiricism and rationalism; knowledge is transmitted through the organization of space, time, and sensation. The search for absolute truth.
(c) Schopenhauer - Idealism; reality is a representation of the will and self-preservation.
(d) Hegel - German Idealism; recognition of consciousnesses through the recognition of mutual and distinct patterns.

5) Context: Beyond Good and Evil is Nietzsche’s attempt to summarize his philosophy of life. Nietzsche’s voice is very straightforward and often sarcastic, which can make this text at times confusing. One is often turned into thinking that Nietzsche is contradicting himself when really he is portraying a caustic view of another. The texts and its subdivisions are reliant upon each preceding section, therefore a careful read and a return to previous sections is helpful so as not to get lost in the underlying current of the moment that Nietzsche is attempting to capture. Throughout the text Nietzsche attacks Western morality and the interpretations of outward appearances. Vowing instead that humanity’s sensibility lies within its “will to power.” That is the shifting power that allows individuals to define everything for themselves. One truly fails to live if own does not take that risk or attempt to seize that recurring moment. Humans should cultivate the strong of will, becoming better and going beyond what it is at present. The only boundaries are those made by the past through enslavement to prescribed morality. The new philosopher is free from these bindings and seeks out its own truths.

The text is broken down into 9 core sections:

1. On the Prejudices of Philosophers – “…every great philosophy so far has been: namely, the personal confession of its author and a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir.” (p.13)
2. The Free Spirit - “Independence”: free spirit “is for the very few; it is a privilege of the strong.” It is “daring to the point of recklessness.” (p.41)
3. What is Religious - “The philosopher as we understand him, we free spirits—as the man of the most comprehensive responsibility who has the conscience for the over-all development of man—this philosopher will make use of religions for his project of cultivation and education, just as he will make use of whatever political and economic states are at hand.” (p.72)
4. Epigrams and Interludes – “The sage as astronomer.—As long as you still experience the stars as something “above you” you lack the eye of knowledge.” (p.81)
5. Natural History of Morals – Every morality is against nature since “one is accustomed to lying.” “…one is much more of an artist than one knows.” (p.105)
6. We scholars – “The objective man is an instrument… a mirror …that awaits content and substance in order to take ‘shape’.” (p.128)
7. Our Virtues – “As men of historical sense…we modern men, like semi-barbarism—and reach our bliss only where we are most—in danger.” (p. 153) “Our honesty, we free spirits—let us see to it that it does not become our vanity.” (p.156) (Side note: Some disparaging comments on the role and function of women; she is not “retrogressing”.)
8. Peoples and Fatherlands – “Perhaps Wagner’s strangest creation is inaccessible, inimitable, and beyond the feelings of the whole, so mature, Latin race, not only today but forever.”(p.198)
9. What is Noble – “The noble human being honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself.”(p.205) Self-preservation, Self enhancement, self-redemption. The Dionysian philosopher, who longs to reduplicate himself “trying to immortalize what cannot live and fly much longer—only weary and mellow things.”(p.237)

6) Applications
1. The role of the philosopher
2. Christian and Enlightenment social and moral systems
3. Religion and the “Death of God”
4. Socratic philosophy
5. Perspectivism and a look at meaning of truth

7) Other Works:
1. The Birth of Tragedy, Essay: 1872, (English, 1968)
2. Human, All Too Human, Essay: 1878
3. Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Essays: 1883-1892, (English, 1961)
4. Beyond Good and Evil, Essay: 1886
5. On the Genealogy of Morals, Essay: 1887
6. Ecce Homo, Essay: 1888
7. Twilight of the Idols, Essay: 1889
8. The Anti-Christ, Essay: 1895
9. The Will to Power, Essay: 1901, (English, 1967)

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